Table 9 : Land-Surface description.
|Acronym||Hydrology||Reference(s) or paper(s) that best describe the land-surface scheme||Number of vegetation types included||Reference of the vegetation distribution used||Number of soil types included||Reference of the distribution of soils used|
|bmrc||SL"bucket"||McAveney and Hess (1996)||No explicit vegetation||_||1 soil type in bucket model and land ice||_|
|ccc2.0||SL "bucket"||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers(1985)||24 soil/vegetation (each grid cell determined by a 2/3 and 1/3 weighting of primary/secondary vegetation type)||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985)||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
|ccm1||SL "bucket"||Manabe (1969)||No explicit vegetation||_||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
|ccm3||LSM||Bonan (1996)||12 vegetation types||_||sand; silt; clay||_|
|ccsr1||SL "bucket"||Manabe (1965)||No explicit vegetation||_||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
|climber2||BATS||Dickinson et al. (1986)||2 vegetation types (trees and grass)||Brovkin et al. (1997)||2 soil types, distinguished only in albedo||_|
|cnrm-2||ISBA||Mahfouf et al. (1995); Manzi and Planton (1994)||13 vegetation types derived by aggregation of several vegetation types from the classification of Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985)||Manzi and Planton (1994)||use a specification of soil properties such as albedo and percentage of silt/clay/sand from 3 categories of soil color, texture and drainage||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985); Webb et al (1991), explained in Mahfouf et al (1995)|
|csiro||SVAT||Kowalczyk et al. (1991, 1994)||12 vegetation types||Dorman and Sellers (1989)||9 soil types||From Zobler dataset|
|echam3||SL "bucket"||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers(1985), Miller et al. (1992), Duemenil and Todini (1992), Blondin (1989)||3 vegetation types: forest, other vegetation, no vegetation (+ land ice)||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985)||1 soil type in bucket model||Duemenil and Todini (1992); Blondin (1989)|
|gen1||LSX||Pollard and Thompson (1995)||Subdivision according to upper- and lower-story vegetation (trees and grass/shrubs) of 12 types?||6 soil layers?||_|
|gen2||LSX||Pollard and Thompson (1995)||EVE vegetation model. For 0k, it is driven by observed climate and closely reproduces observed distributions. It predicts 110 life forms.||Bergengren et al. (1997, 1997)||6 soil layers: sand/silt/clay fractions from 1x1 degree soil texture database||Webb et al.(1993); Cosby et al.(1984)|
|gfdl||SL "bucket"||Manabe (1969)||No explicit vegetation||_||no explicit variation in soil type||_|
|giss-iip||Abramopoulos et al. (1988)||Rosenzweig and Abramopoulos (1997)||Vegetation type is a composite over each gris-box from 32 classifications distinguished in the 1x1 degree data of Matthews (1983)||Matthews (1983,1984)||106 soil types with 6 layers. Soil type parameterized by diffusion and conductivity.||Rosenzweig, Webb (1986,1991,1993)|
|lln_nh_1||W||_||No explicit vegetation||_||no explicit soil types||_|
|lmcelmd4||SL "bucket" Budyko||Manabe (1969)||No explicit vegetation||_||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
|lmcelmd5||Sechiba||Ducoudré et al. (1993)||7 vegetation types and 1 bare soil type||Matthews (1983)||1 soil type as in bucket model but no climatological distribution as in the real world||_|
|mri2||4L||Noda et al. (1995)||no vegetation type was determined||_||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
|msu||SL Kislov||Kislov (1991)||no explicit types of vegetation in the surface scheme||_||no explicit types of soil in the surface scheme; map of natural zones and data set of typical values of surface parameters corresponding on these zones are used||_|
|ugamp||3 layer diffusive model, no flux at the bottom of soil model||Dong and Valdes (1995)||vegetation is not explicitly specified||_||1 soil type||_|
|uiuc11||SL "bucket"||Manabe (1969)||7 vegetation types (evergreen wood and forest; mixed and deciduous wood, and forest; grassland; cropland; shrub and semi-desert; desert; and tundra, mountain, arctic flora)||Vinnikov and Yeserkepova (1991)||5 soil textures (sandy; sandy loam; light loam; loamy; heavy loam, clay)||Vinnikov and Yeserkepova (1991)|
|ukmo||_||Warrilow et al. (1989, 1986)||53 land cover types from Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985) are expressed as weighted sums of 24 "vegetation components"||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985)||3 soil types (coarse; medium; fine) + land ice||Wilson and Henderson-Sellers (1985)|
|yonu||SL "bucket"||Tokioka et al. (1984); Ghan et al. (1982); Oh (1989, 1996); Oh et al. (1994)||No explicit vegetation||_||1 soil type in bucket model||_|
SL "bucket" = single layer bucket (Manabe et al. 1965, Manabe 1969, Manabe and Holloway 1975, Holloway and Manabe 1971).
SL "bucket" = single layer following Budyko 1956.
LSM = Land Surface Model (Boran 1996).
ISBA = Interactions Soil - Biosphere - Atmosphere (Noilhan and Planton 1989).
SVAT from Kowalczyk et al. 1991, 1994 (Soil - Canopy Scheme).
LSX = Land Surface Transfert Scheme (Pollard and Thompson 1994, Thompson and Pollard 1995).
Abramopoulos = land surface hydrology is treated after the physically based model of Abramopoulos et al. 1988.
SL Kislov = single layer, following the method of Kislov 1991.
4L = 4 - layer soil model wich can treat the freezing and melting process of soil moisture (Noda et al 1995).
W = The surface (land or snow) is characterised by its water availability (w). On land : it (w) depends on the soil liquid water content which varies
|Number of land-surface characteristics prescribed for vegetation and soil||Reference for the prescribed values||Scheme included parametrization(s) of C02 fluxes ?||Sensitivity studies such as deforestation, etc?||Reference for these studies||Land-surface scheme participating to PILPS* ?|
||Surface albedo; surface roughness length||McAveney and Hess (1996)||no||not with a bucket model (has been used with "BEST")||_||yes via the bucket model (phase1); also with AMIP/PIPLS (scheme "Best" is found unsatisfactory)|
||Surface albedo, bucket depth, evapotranspiration slope factor.||Henderson-Sellers and Wilson (1985)||no||no||_||no|
||Surface albedo; surface roughness length, other?||-||-||-||-||-|
||Surface albedo; surface roughness length||Matthews (1983, 1984)||no||no||_||no|
||Soil: surface albedo, roughness length ; Vegetation: LAI, minimum stomatal resistance, distribution of roots||Dickinson et al. (1986)||no||no||_||no|
||8 land surface characteristics for the 13 different vegetation types (soil depth, albedo, roughness length, minimal and maximal vegetation density, minimal and maximal leaf area index, minimum surface resistance to transpiration).||Table 2 of Mahfouf et al (1995)||no||temperate and boreal deforestation||Douville and Royer (1997)||yes with ISBA scheme|
||soil use saturated moisture content, willing moisture content, saturation value of matrix potential, specific heat, density, albedo, emissivity, field capacity. vegetation use min observed canopy stomatal resistance, fraction of vegetation, fraction of vegetation, LAI, roughness lenght, albedo and emissivity.||Dorman and Sellers dataset||no||no||_||yes|
||surface albedo; surface roughness length||_||no||yes||Claussen (1994)||no|
||9 parameters at each grid point for two canopies (upper and lower: trees and grasses): fractional cover and heights, leaf and stem area indices, leaf orientation, root distribution, leaf/stem optical properties, and stomatal resistances||-||-||-||-||-|
||20 parameters at each grid point for two canopies (upper and lower: trees and grasses): fractional cover, geometric height of canopy (top and bottom), stem area index, aero dimension of stems, maximum root depth, green and brown LAI, fraction of total LAI that is broadleaf, areo length and areo width dimension for needleaf and broadleaf, leaf orientation, live leaf reflectivity and transmissivity, stomatal conductance (min, max) stomatal PAR constant, stomatal VDP constant.||_||no||yes||Bonan et al.(1992,1993); Foley et al.(1994); Deconto et al.(1997); Pollard and Thompson.(1995)||yes but only PILPS "part 1a"|
||2 characteristics: "bucket" depth (globally uniform 15 cm) and surface albedo (based on the CLIMAP modern albedos)||_||no||no||_||yes|
||surface albedo; surface roughness length ;Water holding capacity of soil ;||Matthews (1983,1984)||no||no||_||no|
||The surface albedo is computed (parametrisation) NOT prescribed.||_||no||yes||Dezileau (199?)||no|
||Surface albedo, drag coefficient for land (2 values : one for winter and one for summer)||_||_||_||_||_|
||Water holding capacity of soil; surface albedo; surface roughness length; leaf area index; architectural resistance; 3 parameters for canopy resistance; one maximum water holding capacity for leaf water per LAI; resistance by soil; constant for surface soil humidity||Dorman and Sellers (1989); Ducoudré et al. (1993), Chalita and Letreut (1994)||no||yes||Polcher et Laval (1994,1994), Polcher (1995)||yes with a slightly different version|
||surface albedo; surface roughness length fixed||Matthews (1983)||no||no||_||no|
||albedo; thermal conductivity; thermal diffusivity; depth of active layer of soil (in permafrost region), moisture avaibility factor||_||no||within paleoclimate simulation, scheme for such sensitivity studies as glaciation/deglaciation, arid/semiarid||_||no|
||prescribed surface properties, such as roughness length, bare land albedo||Preuss and Geleyn (1980, 1983)||no||no||_||yes|
||prescribed surface properties, such as roughness length, bare land albedo, snow-covered albedo||Matthews (1983)||no||no||_||no|
||Soil; heat capacity, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, drainage exponent (pre-HadAM2b only), suction exponent (HadAM2b only), suction intercept (HadAM2b only), saturated, critical and wilting volumetric soil moisture concentration; Vegetation: snow-free albedo, deep-snow albedo, rootdepth, roughness length, infiltration enhancement factor, canopy interception capacity, surface resistance.||Warrilow and Buckley (1989)||no||yes||Lean et al. (1997)||yes with scheme described by PIPLS as "UKMO" or "UKMET" identical to that used in HadAM2b|
||prescribed surface type which affect surface albedo as follows: woodland, forest, steppe and grassland, steppe desert, desert, tundra, water, land ice, sea ice||_||no||simple bucket model so not considered||_||simple bucket model so not considered|
PILPS: Project for Intercomparison
of Land-surface Parametrization Schemes, Henderson-Sellers et a