PMIP Publications : Mid-Holocene Climate

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A plain text version of all the 6k references is available here.


Results from individual PMIP experiments

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Dong, B., P.J. Valdes, and N.M.J. Hall, The changes of monsoonal climates due to Earth's orbital perturbations and ice age boundary conditions, Paleoclimates -data and modelling, 1, 203-240, 1996.
Hall, N.M., and P.J. Valdes, A GCM simulation of the climate 6000 years ago, Journal of Climate, 10, 3-17, 1997.
Hewitt, C.D., and J.F.B. Mitchell, GCM simulations of the climate of 6kyr BP: mean changes and changes and interdecadal variability, Journal of Climate, 9, 3505-3529, 1996.
Jolly, D., S.P. Harrison, B. Damnati, and R. Bonnefille, Simulated climate and biomes of Africa during the Late Quaternary: comparison with pollen and lake status data, Quaternary Science Reviews, 17, 629-657, 1998.
Lorenz, S., B. Grieger, P. Helbig, and K. Herterich, Investigating the sensitivity of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM3 to paleoclimatic boundary conditions, Geol Rundsch, 85, 513-524, 1996.
Masson, V., and S. Joussaume, Energetics of the 6000 BP atmospheric circulation in boreal summer, from large scale to monsoon areas : a study with two versions of the LMD AGCM, Journal of Climate, 10, 2888-2903, 1997.
Vettoretti, G., W.R. Peltier, and N.A. McFarlane, Simulations of Mid-Holocene climate using an atmospheric general circulation model, Journal of Climate, 11, 2607-2627, 1998.

Data syntheses

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Cheddadi, R., G. Yu, J. Guiot, S.P. Harrison, and C.I. Prentice, The climate of Europe 6000 years ago, Climate Dynamics, 13, 1-9, 1997.
Edwards, M.E., P.M. Anderson, L.B. Brubaker, T. Ager, A.A. Andreev, N.H. Bigelow, L.C. Cwynar, W.R. Eisner, S.P. Harrison, F.-S. Hu, D.Jolly, A.V. Lozhkin, G.M. MacDonald, C.J. Mock, J.C. Ritchie, A.V. Sher, R.W. Spear, J. Williams, and G. Yu, Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr B.P., Journal of Biogeography, 27, 521-554, 2000.
Gajewski, K., A. Viau, M. Sawada, D. Atkinson and S. Wilson, Sphagnum peatland distribution in North America and Eurasia during the past 21,000 years, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 297-310, 2001.
Harrison, S.P., G. Yu, and P.E. Tarasov, Late Quaternary lake-level record from northern Eurasia, Quaternary Research, 45, 138-159, 1996.
Jolly, D., I.C. Prentice, R. Bonnefille, A. Ballouche, M. Bengo, P. Brenac, G. Buchet, D. Burney, J.-P. Cazet, R. Cheddadi, T. Edorh, H. Elenga, S. Elmoutaki, J. Guiot, F. Laarif, H. Lamb, A.-M. Lezine, J. Maley, M. Mbenza, O. Peyron, M. Reille, I. Reynaud-Ferrera, G. Riollet, J.C. Ritchie, E. Roche, L. Scott, I. Ssemmanda, H. Straka, M. Umer, E. Van Campo, S. Vilimumbala, A. Vincens, and M. Waller, Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for Africa and the Arabian peninsula at 0 and 6 ka, Journal of Biogeography, 25, 1007-1027, 1998.
Prentice, I.C., D. Jolly, and BIOME 6000 participants, Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa, Journal of Biogeography, 27, 507-519, 2000.
Prentice, I.C., and T. Webb III, BIOME 6000: reconstructing global mid-Holocene vegetation patterns from palaeoecological records, Journal of Biogeography, 25, 997-1005, 1998.
Takahara, H., S.P. Sugita, S.P. Harrison, N. Miyoshi, Y. Morita, and T. Uchiyama, Pollen-based reconstruction of Japanese biomes at 0, 6000 and 18,000 yr B.P., Journal of Biogeography, 27, 665-683, 2000.
Tarasov, P.E., T. Webb III, A.A. Andreev, N.B. Afanas´eva, N.A. Berezina, L.G. Bezusko, T.A. Blyakharchuk, N.S. Bolikhovskaya, R. Cheddadi, M.M. Chernavskaya, G.M. Chernova, N.I. Dorofeyuk, V.G. Dirksen, G.A. Elina, L.V. Filimonova, F.Z. Glebov, J. Guiot, V.S. Gunova, S.P. Harrison, D. Jolly, V.I. Khomutova, E.V. Kvavadze, I.R. Osipova, N.K. Panova, I.C. Prentice, L. Saarse, D.V. Sevastyanov, V.S. Volkova, and V.P. Zernitskaya, Present-day and mid-Holocene biomes reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data from the former Soviet Union and Mongolia, Journal of Biogeography, 25, 1029-1053, 1998.
Texier, D., N. de Noblet, S.P. Harrison, A. Haxeltine, D. Jolly, S. Joussaume, F. Laarif, I.C. Prentice, and P. Tarasov, Quantifying the role of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks in climate change: coupled model simulations for 6000 years BP and comparison with paleodata for northern Eurasia and northern Africa, Climate Dynamics, 13, 865-881, 1997.
Thompson, R.S. and K.H. Anderson, Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6,000 and 0 14C yr B.P. reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data, Journal of Biogeography, 27, 555-584, 2000.
Viau, A. and K. Gajewski, Holocene variations in the global hydrological cycle quantified by objective gridding of lake level databases, Journal of Geophysical Research, In press.
Williams, J.W., T. Webb III, P.H. Richard, and P. Newby, Late quaternary biomes of Canada and the eastern United States, Journal of Biogeography, 27, 585-607, 2000.
Yu, G., and S.P. Harrison, An evaluation of the simulated water balance of northern Eurasia at 6000 yr B.P. using lake status data, Climate Dynamics, 12, 723-735, 1996.
Yu, G., I.C. Prentice, S.P. Harrison, and X. Sun, Pollen-based biome reconstruction for China at 0 and 6000 years, Journal of Biogeography, 25, 1055-1069, 1998.
Yu, G., Chen Xudong, Ni Jian, R. Cheddadi, J. Guiot, Han Huiyou, S.P. Harrison, Huang Ci-xuan, D. Jolly, K. Manhong, Kong Zhaochen, Li Shengfeng, Li Wen-yi, Ping.mei Liew, Liu Gunagxu, Liu Jinling, Kam-biu Liu, I.C. Prentice, Ren Guoyu, Song Changqing, S. Sugita, Sun Xiangjun, Tang Lingyu, E. Van Campo, Xia Yumei, Xu Qinghai, Yan Shun, Yang Xiangdong, and Zheng Zhuo, Palaeovegetation of China: a pollen data-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum, Journal of Biogeography, 27, 635-664, 2000.

PMIP model-model and model-data comparisons

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Braconnot, P., S. Joussaume, N. de Noblet, and G. Ramstein, Mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum African monsoon changes as simulated within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison project, Global and Planetary Change, 26, 51-66, 2000.
Gajewski, K., R. Vance, M. Sawada, I. Fung, L.D. Gignac, L. Halsey, J. John, P. Maisongrande, P. Mandell, P. Mudie, P. Richard, A.G. Sherrin, J. Soroko and D. Vitt, The climate of North America and adjacent ocean waters ca. 6ka, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37, 661-681, 2000.
Guiot, J., J.J. Boreux, P. Braconnot, F. Torre, and PMIP-participating-groups, Data-models comparison using fuzzy logic in palaeoclimatology, Climate Dynamics, 15, 569-581, 1999.
Harrison, S., Final Report on the Contribution of the Dynamic Palaeoclimatology group at Lund University to the "Evaluating Climate Models with Proxy-Data within the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project". In: Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Proceedings of the Third PMIP workshop, Canada, 4-8 October 1999. (ed. by. P. Braconnot). WCRP-111, WMO/TD-No. 1007, pp. 271, 2000.
Harrison, S.P., D. Jolly, F. Laarif, A. Abe-Ouchi, B. Dong, K. Herterich, C. Hewitt, S. Joussaume, J.E. Kutzbach, J. Mitchell, N. de Noblet, and P. Valdes, Intercomparison of simulated global vegetation distributions in response to 6 kyr BP orbital forcing, Journal of Climate, 11, 2721-2742, 1998.
Joussaume, S., and K.E. Taylor, Modelling Extreme Climates of the Past : What we have learned from PMIP and related Experiments, PAGES Newsletter / CLIVAR Exchanges, 8 / 5, 18-19, 2000.
Joussaume, S., K.E. Taylor , P. Braconnot, J.F.B. Mitchell, J.E. Kutzbach, S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, A.J. Broccoli, A. Abe-Ouchi, P.J. Bartlein, C. Bonfils, B. Dong, J. Guiot, K. Herterich, C.D. Hewitt, D. Jolly, J.W. Kim, A. Kislov, A. Kitoh, M.F. Loutre, V. Masson, B. McAvaney, N. McFarlane, N. de Noblet, W.R. Peltier, J.Y. Peterschmitt, D. Pollard, D. Rind, J.F. Royer, M.E. Schlesinger, J. Syktus, S. Thompson, P. Valdes, G. Vettoretti, R.S. Webb, and U. Wyputta, Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (7), 859-862, 1999.
Kohfeld, K.E., and S.P. Harrison, How well can we simulate past climates? Evaluating the models using global palaeoenvironmental datasets, Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 321-346, 2000.
Masson, V., S. Joussaume, S. Pinot, and G. Ramstein, Impact of parameterizations on simulated winter mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere, Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmosphere), 103 (D8), 8935-8946, 1998.
Masson, V., R. Cheddadi, P. Braconnot, S. Joussaume, S. Texier, and PMIP-participating- groups, Mid-Holocene climate in Europe:what can we infer from PMIP model-data comparisons ?, Climate Dynamics, 15, 163-182, 1999.
Valdes P. J., South American palaeoclimate model simulations: how reliable are the models ?, Journal of Quaternary Science, 15, 357-368, 2000.
Vettoretti G., W. R. Peltier, N. A. McFarlane, and P.M.I.P. participating groups. The simulated response of the climate system to soil moisture perturbations under paleoclimatic boundary conditions at 6000 years before present, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. ,37, 635-660, 2000a.
Yu, G., and S.P. Harrison, An evaluation of the simulated water balance of northern Eurasia at 6000 yr B.P. using lake status data, Climate Dynamics, 12, 723-735, 1996.

PMIP related experiments


Ocean and land surface feedbacks or sensitivity experiments

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Braconnot, P., S. Joussaume, O. Marti, and N. de Noblet, Synergistic feedbacks from ocean and vegetation on the African monsoon response to mid-Holocene insolation, Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (16), 2481-2484, 1999.
Braconnot, P., O. Marti, S. Joussaume, and Y. Leclainche, Ocean feedback in response to 6 kyr BP insolation, Journal of Climate, 13, 1537-1553, 2000.
Brostrom, A., M. Coe, S.P. Harrison, R. Gallimore, J.E. Kutzbach, J. Foley, I.C. Prentice, and P. Behling, Land Surface feedbacks and palaeomonsoons in Northern Africa, Geophysical Research Letters, 25 (19), 3615-3618, 1998.
Bush, A.B.G., Assessing the impact of Mid-Holocene insolation on the atmosphere-ocean system, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 99-102, 1999.
Claussen, M., C. Kubatzki, V. Brovkin, and A. Ganopolski, Simulation of an abrupt change in Saharan vegetation in the mid-Holocene, Geophysical Research Letters, 26 (14), 2037-2040, 1999.
Coe, M.T., and G.B. Bonan, Feedbacks between climate and surface water in northern Africa during the middle Holocene, Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmosphere), 102 (D 10), 11,087-11,101, 1997.
Foley, J.A., J.E. Kutzbach, M.T. Coe, and S. Levis, Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch, Nature, 371, 52-54, 1994.
Ganopolski, A., C. Kubatzki, M. Claussen, V. Brovkin, and V. Petoukhov, The influence of vegetation-atmosphere-ocean interaction on climate during the mid-Holocene, Science, 280, 1916-1919, 1998.
Hewitt, C.D., and J.F.B. Mitchell, A fully coupled GCM simulation of the climate of the mid- Holocene, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 361-364, 1998.
Hoelzmann, P., D. Jolly, S.P. Harrison, F. Laarif, R. Bonnefille, and H.-J. Pachur, Mid- Holocene land-surface conditions in northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula: a data set for AGCM simulations, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 35-52, 1998.
Kutzbach, J.E., G. Bonan, J. Foley, and S. Harrison , Vegetation and soil feedbacks on the response of the African monsoon to forcing in the early to middle Holocene, Nature, 384, 623-626, 1996.
Kutzbach, J.E., and Z. Liu, Response of the African monsoon to orbital forcing and ocean feedbacks in the Middle Holocene, Science, 278, 440-443, 1997.
Kutzbach, J.E., R. Gallimore, S.P. Harrison, P. Behling, R. Selin, and F. Laarif, Climate and biome simulations for the past 21,000 years, Quaternary Science Reviews, 17 (6-7), 473-506, 1998.
Kutzbach, J.E., S.P. Harrison, and M.T. Coe, Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions and Monsoon Climate Change: A Palaeo-Perspective, in: Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System (Schulze, E.-D., Heimann, M., Harrison, S.P., Holland, E., Lloyd, J., Prentice, I.C. and Schimel, D., Eds), Academic Press (in press).
Liu, Z., R.G. Gallimore, J.E. Kutzbach, W. Xu, Y. Golubev, P. Behling, and R. Selin, Modeling long-term climate changes with equilibrium asynchronous coupling, Climate Dynamics, 15, 325-340, 1999.
Otto-Bliesner, B.L., El Nino/La Nina and Sahel precipitation during the middle Holocene, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 87-90, 1999.
Pollard, D., J.C. Bergengren, L.M. Stillwell-Soller, B. Felzer, and S.L. Thompson, Climate simulations for 10 000 and 6 000 years BP using the GENESIS global climate model, Paleoclimates - Data and Modelling, 2, 183-218, 1998.
TEMPO, Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions: a case study at 6000 years B.P., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10 (4), 727-736, 1996.
Texier, D., N. de Noblet, and P. Braconnot, Sensitivity of the African and Asian monsoons to mid-Holocene insolation and data-inferred surface changes, Journal of Climate, 13, 164-181, 2000.
Texier, D., N. de Noblet, S.P. Harrison, A. Haxeltine, D. Jolly, S. Joussaume, F. Laarif, I.C. Prentice, and P. Tarasov, Quantifying the role of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks in climate change: coupled model simulations for 6000 years BP and comparison with paleodata for northern Eurasia and northern Africa, Climate Dynamics, 13, 865-881, 1997.
Vettoretti, G., W.R. Peltier, and N.A. McFarlane, Simulations of Mid-Holocene climate using an atmospheric general circulation model, Journal of Climate, 11, 2607-2627, 1998.
Webb III, T., K.H. Anderson, P.J. Bartlein, and R.S. Webb, Late Quaternary climate change in eastern North America: a comparison of pollen-derived estimates with climate model results, Quaternary Science Reviews, 17, 587-606, 1998.

Sensitivity to parameterization

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Bonfils, C., N. Noblet-Ducoudré, P. Braconnot, and S. Joussaume, Hot desert albedo and climate change: Mid-Holocene monsoon in North Africa, Journal of Climate, 17, 3724-3737, 2001.
de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., M. Claussen, and C. Prentice, Mid-Holocene greening of the Sahara: first results of the GAIM 6000 yr BP experiment with two asynchronously coupled atmosphere/biome models, Climate Dynamics, 16, 643-659, 2000.
Liao, X., A. Street-Perrott, and J.F.B. Mitchell, Two GCM experiments for 6000 years BP Comparisons with Palaeoclimatic reconstructions., Palaeoclimates - Data and Modelling, 1, 99-123, 1994.
Valdes, P. J. and R. W. Glover, Modelling the climate response to orbital forcing, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A, 357, 1873-1890, 1999.

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